Continuous Emission Monitoring System – How to choose a CEMS?

How to choose the right products for your Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) application? Which technologies are right for your process? When selecting emission monitoring products, you may not be sure which one is the best for your requirements or process. The CEMS market is mature and there are a lot of technologies and options available. However, choosing which emission monitoring products best suits your process need not be an cumbersome task!

CEMS are crucial for all plants, refineries, power stations and other industrial sites where the combustion of fuels is a regular occurrence for a number of different reasons. Firstly, it can provide vital information about the levels of dust, and concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, THC and O2 in any given site, thus ensuring they remain safe for human occupation and do not pose a fire risk. This can be especially pertinent at facilities where flames are a necessary part of daily operation.

Besides the basic function of enhancing site safety, CEMS are also the method of ensuring that the facility in question complies with its legal obligations. Globally there are numerous different standards and methods for environmental monitoring, with all combustion plants obliged to monitor and analyze their gas flue effluents to ensure they comply with the relevant maximum thresholds for certain contaminants.

In this article

Emission monitoring - How to choose a Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) blue sky smoke stack emission

CEMS constantly analyze gases to measure the released pollutants, demonstrating compliance.

Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) in short

Continuous emission monitoring systems – or CEMS for short – is a method of monitoring the emissions from the smokestacks of industrial sites such as refineries, power stations, manufacturing plants and other facilities where combustion of fuel sources is in occurrence.

These emission monitoring systems are integrated to measure fuel flow, dust, and concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, THC and O2 in accordance with the applicable regulations for the emission source.

CEMS constantly analyze gases to measure the released pollutants, demonstrating compliance. Equipment must provide stable, and accurate results that are not subject to cross-interference from other pollutants. It is a legal requirement in many countries around the world, including Europe and the USA.

Overview of our emission monitoring products

ASaP complete Continuous Emission Monitoring System CEMS shelter with emission analyzers and sample conditioning system

ASaP’s complete CEMS shelter with emission analyzers and sample conditioning system

The best approach and fit for all emission gas analyzers. Smart and flexible design for a CEM system.

ABB ACF5000 Multi-Component FTIR emission monitoring system

ABB ACF5000 multi-component FTIR emission monitoring system

Measurement technology with the highest levels of accuracy, selectivity and reliability.

ASaP AIM predictive maintenance software rugged tablet

Emission monitoring and reporting with AIM

AIM provides you with easy reporting preventing discussion with authorities and gives a calculation of emission load.

Analyzer maintenance & service multi-meter wrech screwdriver

Maintenance for your emission analyzers

Professional rapid-response service for your emission analyzers and systems

Ametek CEM Humox Emission Analyzer

Ametek CEM Humox moisture in flue gas analyzer

Hot wet or cold dry extractive continuous emissions monitoring (CEMS)

ABB ACF-NT Multi-Component Analysis System for Emission and Process Monitoring

ABB ACF-NT multi-component analysis system for CEMS

Continuous measurement of HCl, HF, H2O, CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2, CH4, NH3, N2O, H2CO, CH3OH, O2 and VOC

Ametek 920 Hot Wet Multi Gas CEMS Analyzer

Ametek 920 hot wet multi gas CEMS analyzer

Multicomponent analyzer capable of measuring up to five different gases simultaneously

Ametek 9900 emission gas analyzer

Ametek 9900 emission gas analyzer

Versatile ultraviolet (UV), continuous emissions monitoring CEM-system and process gas analyzer

Types of emission gas analyzers

Ultraviolet (UV)-based analyzers

The UV-based measurements are chosen for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems because they are unaffected by interference from water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). They also provide a wide dynamic range for some measurements. There is no need for sample drying, which greatly simplifies sample handling and integrity. High-intensity line source lamps emit a fixed wavelength for measurement stability, and emit low total power, which removes the potential for sample photolysis.

FTIR spectrometer

Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compared to other IR techniques, can measure many components in real-time due to the use of an interferometer that allows the collection of a broad range of wavelengths. FTIR spectrometers are undeniably one of the most reliable technologies due to its sensitivity and capability to recognize extremely low concentrations of gases. FTIR gas analyzers can measure from low ppm levels up to vol-%.

Flame Ionization Detectors (FID) analyzers

The Flame-ionization Detector (FID) measures the total organic carbon (TOC) contained in emission gas samples. The most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of Total hydrocarbons (THC), Non-methanic Hydrocarbons (NmHC), and Methane (CH4).

Zirconia oxygen analyzers

Zirconium oxide measurements are used in CEMS because they are a trusted, industry-proven sensing technology for fast and accurate oxygen analysis in a wide range of applications, particularly combustion processes. Capable of measuring oxygen at percentage or parts-per-million levels, zirconium oxide sensors can be used in both extractive and insitu probe instruments, providing solutions for a wide range of industries.

Emission monitoring - How to choose a Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) engineers walking trough mining tunnel
Metals and mining operations require high temperatures at many stages. This heat is delivered by combustion processes, which require gas analysis to ensure product quality and control emissions.

Range of CEMS applications

Emission Compliance

Reliable, accurate emission monitoring with a CEMS is essential to ensure processes comply with environmental regulations. This requires operators to properly install suitable measurement equipment that meets all regulatory criteria.

Industrial boilers

Boilers are required to provide the power and steam needed for many industrial processes. Efficient burner Boilers are required to provide the power and steam needed for many industrial processes. Efficient burner control ensures reduced fuel costs and lower emissions, and depends upon optimizing the combustion reaction between oxygen (from air) and the fuel used. An ideal ratio between the two ensures safe and efficient operation with minimal emissions.

Hydrocarbon processing emission compliance

Boilers are required to provide the power and steam needed for many industrial processes. Efficient burner Boilers are required to provide the power and steam needed for many industrial processes. Efficient burner control ensures reduced fuel costs and lower emissions, and depends upon optimizing the combustion reaction between oxygen (from air) and the fuel used. An ideal ratio between the two ensures safe and efficient operation with minimal emissions.

Biomass boilers

Biomass boilers provide the power and steam needed for many industrial processes. Efficient burner control ensures reduced fuel costs and lower emissions, and depends upon optimizing the combustion reaction between oxygen (from air) and the fuel used. An ideal ratio between the two ensures safe and efficient operation with minimal greenhouse gas emissions.

Fired heaters

Fired heaters are direct-fired heat exchangers that use safe, efficient, and controlled combustion to raise the temperature of feed flowing through coils throughout the heater. They rely on efficient combustion to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions and ensure process safety. Depending on the use, these are called furnaces, or process heaters, and are critical to hydrocarbon processing.

Emission compliance in glass manufacturing

Glass production processes generate harmful gas emissions, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which are subject to environmental regulation. Compliance with these regulations must be demonstrated to avoid fines and other sanctions.

Kilns

Combustion control is important in a kiln, but can prove challenging due to the high temperatures, high variability in fuel sources, and high levels of dust and particulate matter. Efficient control of the combustion processes in cement and lime production can help reduce the fuel costs involved in creating the significant amounts of energy required, and also lower emissions, by emission monitoring and control.

Cement and lime production emission compliance

The manufacturing processes for both cement and lime involve mixing inorganic minerals calcined at high temperatures, generating high particulate levels. These processes leverage combustion and emission monitoring and control to ensure process compliance and efficiency.

Emission compliance in pulp and paper manufacturing

Pulp and paper production can generate harmful gases and particulate matter, which are subject to environmental regulation. Compliance with these regulations must be demonstrated to avoid fines and other sanctions.

Thermal oxidizers

Thermal oxidizers are specifically designed for air pollution control, receiving many of the waste streams from the production plant.  Variability in the waste compositions requires constant adjustment of the burner air-fuel ratio, and the swift monitoring of oxygen levels ensures proper destruction removal efficiencies of all emissions.

Emissions compliance in mining

Metal and mining processes generate harmful gas emissions, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which are subject to environmental regulation. Compliance with these regulations must be demonstrated to avoid fines and other sanctions.

Power and steam generation

Controlling the ratio of air and fuel in combustion is key to safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It also impacts upon the pollutant emissions that may be generated by combustion.

Emission monitoring - How to choose a Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) Close up of flame in rotary kiln during heating mode in cement plant
Kilns are used for the pyro-processing stage of many cement and lime manufacturing processes, where the raw materials are subjected to high temperatures.

Our specialist has multiple solutions for you. Contact him today!

CEMS and emission gas analyzers

ASaP’s complete CEMS shelter with emission analyzers and sample conditioning system

ASaP complete Continuous Emission Monitoring System CEMS shelter with emission analyzers and sample conditioning system
ASaP complete Continuous Emission Monitoring System shelter with emission analyzers and sample conditioning system

ASaP’s Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems are integrated into Slim Analyzer Packages (aSAP). These CEMS shelters are manufactured in our workshop. They are tailor made for housing emission analyzers and sample conditioning systems.

The analyzers are mounted inside a coated steel insulated room closed by two doors. Here is the clever part; when opening the doors they lock in the two sidewalls and a weather protected environment is created. A sample conditioning system can be mounted back to back and when required test bottles are mounted.

Flexibility and quality

Due to its design we are flexible in sizing and area classification. We build our CEMS shelters with the highest quality materials and include certificates such as ATEX and DNV.

Key benefits

  • Continuous, quantitative and selective measurement of HCl, HF, H2O, CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2, CH4, NH3, N2O, H2CO, O2 and VOC (other gases on request)
  • Maximum 15 measuring components (standard), simple upgrade on request
  • High stability, accuracy and reliability through proven FTIR technology
  • ATEX and DNV
  • Versatility in flange mounting options, digital communications and data management
  • Comfortable field maintenance

Applications

  • Municipal waste incinerators
  • Biomedical and sludge incinerators
  • Hazardous waste incinerators at chemical plants
  • Gasification and pyrolysis processes
  • Cement kilns
  • Solvent recovery and destruction
  • DeNOx and DeSOx of power plants
  • Crematoria
  • Steel and aluminum smelters
  • Catalyst protection monitoring
  • Combustion research
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Petrochemicals
  • Fine chemicals
  • Industrial boilers
  • Power generation
  • Incineration furnaces
  • Process industries
  • Other CEMS markets

ABB ACF5000 Multi-Component FTIR emission monitoring system

ABB ACF5000 Multi-Component FTIR emission monitoring system
ABB ACF5000 Multi-Component FTIR emission monitoring system

Because of the growing requirements in the field of environmental monitoring, increasing number of pollutants and with lower concentrations must be measured from combustion processes. World leader in stack gas monitoring systems for decades and pioneer in FTIR technology, ABB Analytics is offering an inexpensive and forward-looking system with the ACF5000 multi-component FTIR emission monitoring system.

Highest levels of accuracy, selectivity and reliability

Recognized by the process industries for their ruggedness, the ABB FTIR spectrometers offer a measurement technology with the highest levels of accuracy, selectivity and reliability. Because of the FTIR measurement principle, the spectrometer is free from drift and does not require frequent adjustment, therefore there is no need to hold stocks of expensive, dangerous and toxic test gases. Because it can easily be expanded through software to measure additional infrared-active components, the analysis system is also designed to expand with your future needs.

The sampling probe, sampling line and analyzer cell are heated allowing water vapor to be measured along with extremely low detection levels of pollutant such as HCl, NH3 and HF. The sample gas feeding is using an electronically controlled air injector, which creates a vacuum. This draws the sample gas into the analyzer cell without the use of a mechanical pump. As a beneficial side effect, the sample gas is diluted at the analyzer cell outlet, condensation is reduced, and disposal of the exhaust gas is safer. Since this sampling procedure uses no moving parts, maintenance costs are reduced, and system availability and safety are increased.

Key benefits

  • Continuous, quantitative and selective measurement of HCl, HF, H2O, CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2, CH4, NH3, N2O, H2CO, O2 and VOC (other gases on request)
  • Maximum 15 measuring components (standard), simple upgrade on request
  • High stability, accuracy and reliability through proven FTIR technology
  • Fully integrated VOC and O2 analyzers (optional)
  • Unique air-driven injector pump, no moving parts, low condensate to handle
  • QAL3 automatic span drift check without test gas
  • Low ownership, maintenance and installation cost
  • Complete pre-engineered system, modest space requirement, compact and modular system design
  • Measured value and status signal transmission to DCS and emission evaluators via Ethernet or Modbus TCP

Applications

  • Municipal waste incinerators
  • Biomedical and sludge incinerators
  • Hazardous waste incinerators at chemical plants
  • Gasification and pyrolysis processes
  • Cement kilns
  • Solvent recovery and destruction
  • DeNOx and DeSOx of power plants
  • Crematoria
  • Steel and aluminum smelters
  • Catalyst protection monitoring
  • Combustion research
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Clean gas
  • Petrochemical
  • Glass and metal
  • Natural gas
  • Sulfur recovery/sulfuric acid
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Other CEMS markets

Emission monitoring and reporting with AIM

ASaP AIM predictive maintenance software rugged tablet
With AIM on your mobile device, you can make well informed decisions at the office, in the field, in a hazardous area, or even from your comfy chair at home

Emission monitoring is essential for reporting emission values on regular base to emission authorities.

How is AIM applied?

Plant operation needs to report emission values on regular base to emission authorities. The validation and calibration data of 4 stacks need to be logged continuously. Therefore, a breakdown of these measurements needs to be prevented. There is a need for easy use and interpretation of the measuring results. In addition, further discussion with authorities needs to be prevented, by presenting results in an accurate and standardized way.

The result of using AIM for emission monitoring and reporting

By carefully monitoring the overall status of the emission monitoring system via different graphic images the “loss of measurement” is prevented. Easy reporting prevents discussion with authorities and gives a calculation of emission load.

What is AIM predictive maintenance software?

AIM is easy to use predictive maintenance software and an analyzer data collection for operators and reliability engineers similar to AMADAS to get insight into their measurement and analyzer equipment.

Key benefits

  • Control and validate your analytical equipment
  • Complete overview, with KPI’s, clear dashboards, live tiles, and in-depth reports
  • Pre-configured for your analytical equipment
  • High return on investment

Applications

  • Emissions and compliance
  • Wet and dry gas CEMS
  • Source evaluation, stack testing
  • Power boiler emissions monitoring
  • Sulfur plant stack and feed gas monitoring
  • Process monitoring in nitric acid plants
  • Smelter stack monitoring
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Sulfur recovery/sulfuric acid
  • Bio-fuel boilers
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Fine chemicals
  • Industrial boilers
  • Power generation
  • Petrochemicals
  • Process industries
  • Incineration furnaces
  • Other CEMS markets

Ametek CEM Humox Emission Analyzer

Ametek CEM Humox Emission Analyzer
Ametek CEM Humox Emission Analyzer

Measurement of moisture in flue gas. The CEM/Humox moisture in flue gas analyzer consists of two CEM/Oxygen (O2) sensors (one dry and one wet) and a special version of the Series 2000 control unit. It is designed to measure net O2 and moisture content in flue gas and process applications to calculate emissions on a dry or wet basis. The O2 and moisture data is used to correct emissions, assure product quality, or minimize stack corrosion. The analyzer indicates moisture, O2 wet and O2 dry concentrations in percent by volume.

Extractive analyzers

Extractive analyzers are located remotely from the sample point. The sample can be delivered to the analyzer through a heated sample line (hot or wet) or cooled to remove the moisture (dry). With zirconium oxide (ZrO2) either method can be used. Most of the sample passes straight through the analyzer. A portion flows into the convection loop and is measured by the O2 cell.

Key benefits

  • Hot Wet or Cold Dry extractive continuous emissions monitoring (CEMS)
  • O2 wet/dry calculation software for correlated
  • flue gas moisture measurement

Applications

  • CEMS
  • Hot Wet extractive CEMS
  • Emissions and compliance
  • Instrumentation panels
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • CEMS
  • Stack moisture (O2 wet/dry)
  • Other CEMS markets

ABB ACF-NT Multi-Component Analysis System for Emission and Process Monitoring

ABB ACF-NT Multi-Component Analysis System for Emission and Process Monitoring
ABB ACF-NT Multi-Component Analysis System for Emission and Process Monitoring

As a result of the growing requirements in the field of environmental
monitoring, increasing number of pollutants and with lower concentrations have to be measured from combustion processes. World leader in stack gas monitoring systems for decades and pioneer in FTIR technology, ABB Analytical is offering an inexpensive
and forward-looking system with the ACF-NT multi-component analysis system for emission and process monitoring.

Highest levels of accuracy, selectivity and reliability

Recognized by the process industries for their ruggedness, the ABB FTIR spectrometers offer a measurement technology with the highest levels of accuracy, selectivity and reliability. As a
result of the FTIR measurement principle, the spectrometer is free from drift and does not require frequent calibrations, therefore there is no need to hold stocks of expensive, dangerous and toxic test gases. Because it can easily be expanded through software to measure additional infrared-active components, the analysis system is also designed to expand with your future needs.

The sampling probe, sampling line and analyzer cell are heated allowing water vapor to be measured along with extremely low detection levels of pollutant such as HCl, NH3 and HF. The sample gas delivery is using an electronically controlled air injector, which creates a vacuum. This draws the sample gas into the analyzer cell without the use of a mechanical pump. Thus, no moving part is used resulting in less maintenance. As a beneficial side effect, the sample gas is diluted at the analyzer cell outlet, condensation is reduced and disposal of the exhaust gas is safer.

Key benefits

  • Continuous, quantitative and selective measurement of HCl, HF, H2O, CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2, CH4, NH3, N2O, H2CO, O2 and VOC (other gases on request)
  • Maximum 15 measuring components (standard), simple upgrade on request
  • High stability, accuracy and reliability through proven FTIR technology
  • Fully integrated VOC and O2 analyzers (optional)
  • Unique air-driven injector pump, no moving parts, low condensate to handle
  • QAL3 automatic span drift check without test gas
  • Low ownership, maintenance and installation cost
  • Complete pre-engineered system, modest space requirement, compact and modular system design
  • Measured value and status signal transmission to DCS and emission evaluators via Ethernet or Modbus TCP

Applications

  • Municipal waste incinerators
  • Biomedical and sludge incinerators
  • Hazardous waste incinerators at chemical plants
  • Gasification and pyrolysis processes
  • Cement kilns
  • Solvent recovery and destruction
  • DeNOx and DeSOx of power plants
  • Crematoria
  • Steel and aluminum smelters
  • Catalyst protection monitoring
  • Combustion research
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Clean gas
  • Petrochemical
  • Glass and metal
  • Natural gas
  • Sulfur recovery/sulfuric acid
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Other CEMS markets

Ametek 920 Hot Wet Multi Gas CEMS Analyzer

Ametek 920 Hot Wet Multi Gas CEMS Analyzer
Ametek 920 Hot Wet Multi Gas CEMS analyzer

Multi-component analyzer capable of measuring up to five different gases simultaneously. The 920 is specifically configured for monitoring the stack emissions of multiple pollutants on a concentration basis. It measures as many as five pollutants at stack conditions.

Robust and reliable

  • The 920’s ultraviolet (UV)-based measurements do not suffer from water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interference. They can also have a wide dynamic range for some measurements. This greatly simplifies sample handling and integrity as there is no need for sample drying.

Fully extractive, heated wet basis

The 920’s sample system components are simply heated above the dew point of the sample gas. This results in a simpler and more accurate calculation of gas concentrations, requiring no corrections for condensed and dissolved components.

The analyzer performs all necessary sample gas and calibration gas flow management, and probe and sample line temperature control.

The 920 is a full function continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) system which requires the addition of only a sample probe and sample line to be fully operational. Housing options for the analyzer include a cabinet or walk-in shelter built to your specifications.

Key benefits

  • Hot/wet analysis
  • Multi-range sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • Simultaneous, independent nitric oxide (NO) and nitric dioxide (NO2) measurement
  • Automated zero and span calibration
  • Serial communication with plant distributed control system (DCS)
  • Capable of measuring oxygen (O2) with the addition of an optional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) sensor

Applications

  • Power boiler emissions monitoring
  • Sulfur plant stack and feed gas monitoring
  • Multiple range SO2 monitoring in sulfuric acid plants
  • Process monitoring in nitric acid plants
  • Smelter stack monitoring
  • Sulfuric acid plant control
  • Sulfur recovery unit (SRU) tail gas clean-up
  • SRU feed gas
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2) production and stack gas
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Sulfur recovery/sulfuric acid
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Fine chemicals
  • Other CEMS markets

Ametek 9900 emission gas analyzer

Ametek 9900 emission gas analyzer
Ametek 9900 emission gas analyzer for emission monitoring

Versatile ultraviolet (UV), continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) system and process gas analyzer.

The 9900 is a single or multi-component gas analyzer that can be used alone or as an integrated part of a CEM system. It can be configured to measure most gas species that are absorbed in UV. The wall mount version can maintain an internal cabinet temperature up to 122°F (50°C). This feature allows for transporting a sample gas through the analyzer at an elevated dew point without requiring a sample chiller – a considerable saving in complexity and mechanical equipment.

Powerful data processing capabilities

The simple and robust design of the 9900 is complemented by powerful data processing capabilities. The user-friendly keyboard enables programming of such variables as oxygen (O2) correction, along with timing and frequency of local zero and span checks. Both analog and digital outputs are available, along with serial communications via Modbus protocol.

High-resolution UV technology

The high-resolution UV enables unparalleled linearity over a wide dynamic range (less than 1% deviation over four to five orders of magnitude) which leads to simple, robust data analysis. A six-position filter wheel enables one reference and five measure wavelengths. The dual beam configuration, combined with the reference measurement, ensures low-noise performance with minimal baseline and span drift. The five measurable wavelengths enable the direct measurement of up to five species.

Key benefits

  • Available in wall mount or rack mount versions
  • Excellent baseline stability, minimal span drift
  • Linearity better than 1% over four orders of magnitude
  • No interference from water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Multi-range sulfur dioxide (SO2) with accuracy better than ±1.0% full scale
  • NOx: Direct measure of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), no converter, no quenching effect
  • Optional O2 measurement
  • Optional paramagnetic O2 or infrared carbon monoxide (CO) and/or CO2 sensors

Applications

  • Dry gas CEMS
  • Source evaluation, stack testing
  • Span gas blending
  • Other CEMS applications

Markets

  • Refining
  • Petrochemical
  • Natural gas processing
  • Stack emissions monitoring
  • Other CEMS markets

Need help choosing your next Continuous Emission Monitoring System?

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